Methods Of Data Collection In Statistics Pdf
Difference between census method and sampling method. Confidentiality and anonymity will be maintained and it will not be possible to identify me from any publications. Standard deviation and interquartile range give an indication of spread. The mean is calculated by adding up all the values and then dividing by the total number of values. The table method works particularly well for smaller studies.
Will you need to follow a group of participants over a period of time i. In the process of developing a research question, you are likely to think of a number of different research questions. Sampling bias can occur if decisions are made about sample selection that mean that some individuals have a greater chance of being selected for the sample than others. If the sample is too large, however, it may be impossible to collect and resources will be wasted.
Collection of Data in Statistics Class 11 Notes Download in PDF
Sampling A process through which study participants, or locations, are recruited to take part in a study. Developing Projects in Economics. This information is presented using a frequency table.
Project records are a useful source of data. Triangulation can bring strength to our conclusions or identify areas for further work.
The integration of quantitative and qualitative research can give us a broader understanding of our research subject. It is useful to continually evaluate these questions, as this will help you refine and decide on your final research question.
Qualitative data is non-numerical, covering images, videos, text and peoples written or spoken words. Findings Summaries, blackberry software pdf reader impressions or conclusions reached after an examination or investigation of data. Collection of data is the first important aspect of statistical survey.
In stratified sampling, the number of participants sampled from each strata is calculated proportionally to the total population. By addressing these four study objectives, you will automatically begin to paint a picture that answers your overarching research question.
Most expensive Informants can be influenced Takes more time. Are there any areas that require further research or follow up? What might be the social and ethical implications of the respondents engagement with you and the study? Be clear about the benefits and limitations of recruiting participants that represent either one population e.
We need to use the data to create information. These software packages are, however, not free and you will require a license.
You should be wary of sample plans in research or evaluations that suggest sample size can be calculated using a percentage of the population without further clarification or rationale for this. This is particularly important considering the common perception that qualitative research is not as reliable and sound as quantitative research. Some practical sampling procedures for development research. From codes to organising and global themes The method of cutting out codes and moving them around on a table is often referred to as the table method. Summary of this Session This session has taken you through the process of identifying research questions and selecting appropriate methodologies.
It is also useful to understand the two main statistics, which will be used to calculate the sample size. Statistics help us turn quantitative data into useful information to help with decisionmaking. Take a new piece of paper, write the basic theme label, and place it next to your cluster of codes. In order to ensure that our sample accurately represents the population and enables us to make generalisations from our sample we must fulfil a number of requirements.
Which of the below statements is correct A. You may have used some of these methods as part of your routine project monitoring activities, in a needs assessment or baseline or as part of an evaluation exercise. Do you need to develop an experiment and test different possibilities?
Snowball sampling asking others to identify people who will interview well, because they are open and because they have an in-depth understanding about the issue under study. However, the nature of this knowledge varies and reflects your study objectives.
6 methods of data
Numerical variables are numbers. Do you just highlight what seems most relevant or is there a more systematic way of analysing it? The first question is too simple and can incorporate anything. For example, tarmac bias relates to our tendency to survey those villages that are easily accessible by road. The median is the middle value in a data set, half the data are greater than the median and half are less.
However, we will include links to useful resources should learners wish to increase their knowledge on a particular topic. They have particular knowledge or expertise regarding the group under study, e.
Examine your basic themes and cluster them together into higher order and more interpretative organising themes. Will you need to compare and contrast populations with different outcomes? Findings from qualitative research should not be used to make inferences about a wider population but can be used to provide examples of how or why in specific contexts. If you have vast amounts of data e.
It is clear, focused and gives an indication of what the study sets out to do. The information can consist of interview transcripts, documents, blogs, surveys, pictures, videos etc.
Data Collection Methods Pros and Cons
Statistical analysis is used to summarise and describe quantitative data and graphs or tables can be used to visualise present raw data. The confidence interval is the acceptable range in which your estimate can lie. Depending on the nature of your research question and study objectives, you may begin to think about the direction you think the answers will take. The correct answer can be found at the end of this session. Coding is a long, slow and repetitive process, and you are encouraged to merge, split up or rename codes as you progress.
We also introduced you to some common methods and techniques of data analysis for both quantitative and qualitative research. Triangulation Is when we compare a number of different data sources and methods to confirm our findings. Different data collection methods require different informed consent forms.
You now hopefully have a better understanding of the difference between quantitative and qualitative data collection methods and associated benefits and limitations. Other statistics describing spread are the interquartile range and standard deviation.
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